Selasa, 07 Februari 2012

THE JAVANESE

The area of Java is very vast covering central and east Java island. In ancient time Mataram kingdom which are now the the special district of Yogyakarta and Solo in Central Java were the center of their culture. In 1755 the kingdom was splited into 2, one is the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, and one other is Kasunanan of Surakarta ( both are Islamic kingdoms ). Javanese speak complex dialect which introduces social status. In general the dialect is divided into two levels that are "Ngoko" dialect which is spoken among known partners, and "Krama" dialect which is spoken among those who are not known each other and for those whose social status is considered higher. Both Ngoko and Krama have more further variations, when it was spoken for palace member, higher status level, or more senior people, or for lower level, etc.

Java land is the most densely populated in Indonesia. Many big cities are still developing such as Yogyakarta, Semarang, Solo, Surabaya, Blitar, and Malang. While dozens of medium to small cities still heavy with population. So the welfare of the people is still a tremendous big works. Still a large part of the population working on the land cultivating rice, cassava ( marlihot utilissima Phl), corn (zea mays L), yam (ipomea batatas poir ), Kacang ( vigna sinencis), gude (cjamis cajan), soya ( glycine soya Bth ), bean (arachis hypogen L), etc.

Some people work in government offices, private companies, trades and especially near the beaches as fishermen. Personal ownership of land in Java is the same as other areas in Indonesia. The ownership is transferred down from generation to generation, divided among the heirs. That is why in Java most family has a small land for farming.

Kinship system in Java is almost the same as in Bali, that is forbidden to marry between brother and sister, nephew, and children among brothers and sisters, and marry older woman. There are many ways a man and a woman come to their marriage status. First the family of the man come to the family of the woman to request their daughter, and this is the normal procedure. Second is when a man after dedicated himself to the parent of the woman, than is given as a present to marry their daughter. Third is the present from royal family. Fourth is the family of the woman come to the family of man to request. Fifth is when a marriage is arranged by both parents, in this case the marriage will be an imperative and forced by both parents. This way is become very rare and might be disappear in the future. Divorce in some reasons is accepted due to the absence of child, inability of husband to give welfare to the wife, and other reasonable causes.

In Javanese society there is class considered high status such as "bandara-bandara" consist of royal family lineage, and the "priyayi" the government workers and learnt persons. In contrast to above 2 groups is a class called "wong cilik" means small people, those are the common people which is mostly poor. Based on religious characteristics there are "Santri" and "Kejawen" Santri is Moslem that is very obedience with Islamic rules, while Kejawen is Moslem but they are not praying nor have the idea to go for a haj to Mecca.

Organizationally, the smaller unit of administration is called Desa or Kelurahan with head called "Lurah" Once again the understanding of Desa in Java contains much different affairs compared those a Desa in Bali. A Desa in Java is an administrative area as a bridge between Indonesian government with local organization.

Islam has been is the majority religion in Java, not question about that as at every corner of the land we can see mosques. Not all Javanese practice religious rituals according to the Islamic doctrines. As already mentioned there are "Kejawen", and also many people are Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, and others. The Moslem-Kejawen believe that there is an omni-power incomparable wherever and whenever it does.. This supreme power is called "Kesakten" Below kesakten there are ancestor's spirits, good and evil spirits which can affect human life. In conjunction with this power and spirits they make an offering and a feast for the blessing ceremony. Those rituals such as:
  1. Life circle rites including many ritual after death. Basically there are ritual from Pregnancy - Birth - Life - Death - After Death.
  2. Various ritual for the Desa, Rice field, and Land cultivation,
  3. Various ritual for the Moslem holidays,
  4. Ritual for special event such as opening new house, diseases, long journey etc.
During the ritual they make an offering and is dedicated to supreme power and the lower invisible beings. Even, after death they have ceremonies after 3, 7, 40, 100, and 1000 days.

In their ritualistic tradition it is very clear that influence of Hindu is still very strong observing from the names they use, and some specific beliefs which arises such as (1) a belief of good and evil spirits, (2) a belief mixed between Moslem and Hindu, (3) a belief showing Hindu characters, (4) a belief in mystic. They are all in search of human welfare.

Various tourism interests are spreaded over Java from western tip to eastern tip of the island. Lately the security concern is arises due to the economic crisis of the country which is not last yet. [http://www.balitouring.com/culture/java.htm]

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